I recently installed SharePoint Foundation and when I tried to navigate to Central Administration, I was receiving the Resource Not Found 404 error.
By doing a View Source on the page, I saw that the error was being thrown in a method called CheckSuspiciousFilePath.
So, I went to IIS and checked the physical path in the basic settings for the administration site. Turns out, the file path had a duplicate \ in it: D:\\. By changing that to D:\, the site started working.
(Thanks to this post: http://mosshowto.blogspot.com/2008/10/ressource-cannot-be-found-error.ht… for the helpful tip on using View Source to see the error.)